Moreover, the emotional consequences of the violence are more harmful for females than for males.
Further research is needed to enhance our understanding of adolescent dating violence including the nature of conflicts, as well as the meaning, context, intent, and consequences of the violence and the role of gender.
However, we find that this adult framework does not take into account key differences between adolescent and adult romantic relationships.
Although there are methodological problems accurately determining prevalence rates, a conservative estimate is that one in three adolescents has experienced physical or sexual violence in a dating relationship (Avery-Leaf, Cascardi, O'Leary, & Cano, 1997).
These rates are higher when verbal abuse is included in the definition.
Risk factors have been defined as "attributes or characteristics that are associated with an increased probability of [its] reception and/or expression" (Hotaling & Sugarman, 1990 p. Risk factors are correlates of dating violence and not necessarily causative factors.
Thus, they may have implications for prevention program, but they may also be outcomes that have implications for treatment.